EDAV PROJECT PART VIII
Electro Dynamic Air Vehicle
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Victor Schauberger realized that the Implosion motor or repulsine was a highly charged thermal dynamic engine of such a magnitude that its understanding would take years to comprehend. Slowly I have uncovered the many secrets hidden in this very simple engine. There is a multitude of thermal dynamics and some aerodynamics that come into play here all in which help increase the power output. The implosion engine is a reaction type engine or turbine and follows the same principals with the exception that the fluid expansion is based on a natural supply of heat caused by fluid compression in a confined reducing space. Heat creates horsepower as we all know. Even the implosion turbine adheres to the Carnot cycle. Heat intensifies increasing the rpm by thermal expansion and makes the speed become greater increasing the horsepower. Every engine has to have heat to create horsepower and this is a known fact with the implosion turbine being no different. This is only one factor out of several being addressed here.
Reaction engines increase in hp
as the velocity and pressure increases?
All heat motor engines are similar in that they receive heat from some source, transform part of it into work, and deliver the remainder to a refrigerator.
In the thermo-dynamic sense, a heat motor engine is perfect only when the cycle is reversible, and the efficiency of such an engine is expressed by a ratio of loss of heat to quantity of heat applied. Implosion creates an abundance of natural compressed heat and transforms this heat energy into mechanical horsepower thru the release of pressure.
Implosion is an effect that comes about from induced speed which then compacts the air molecules at the peripheral so tightly that the squeezed molecules actually compress, this creates a high tension and creates heat that further expands the fluid so in the release from the flat orifice the molecule instantly expand. This immediate expansion of the fluid when directed thru curved machined slots creates a type of reaction engine. Since this effect creates a compressed heat to come about near the peripheral just how much heat is developed is still unknown. Heat is also transferred to the copper wave plates which then become thermal heaters themselves. It now becomes a self radiated thermal heat engine preheating the incoming fluid and expanding the gas fluid as it begins to compress the fluid thru the descending chamber system. This applies a natural form of heat to the fluid.
When air is heated in a closed container the air will multiply its volume several times. This increase in volume also increases in pressure to the point it will explode the container. So as the spin is increased from increased volume it will further increase the heat by compression and the turbine gains power. This invention is based on the feasibility of transmuting or transforming the fluid from a lesser to a greater potential condition accompanied by but a meager increase in intrinsic energy.
Carnot accurately explained that realization of that kind of
so-called perpetual motion means the effect of combined action of two distinct
heat engines, one
What is a REACTION TURBINE?
Reaction turbines develop torque by reacting to the gas or fluid's pressure or mass. The pressure of the gas or fluid changes as it passes through the standard turbine rotor blades. A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the turbine stage(s) or the turbine must be fully immersed in the fluid flow (such as with wind turbines). The casing contains and directs the working fluid and, for water turbines, maintains the suction imparted by the draft tube. For compressible working fluids, multiple turbine stages are usually used to harness the expanding gas efficiently. Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines.
By contrast with the impulse turbine, reaction turbines are difficult to understand and analyze, especially the ones usually met with in practice. The modest lawn sprinkler comes to our aid, since it is both a reaction turbine, and easy to understand.
In the reaction turbine, the pressure change occurs in the runner itself at the same time that the force is exerted. The force still comes from rate of change of momentum, but not as obviously as in the impulse turbine. Many turbines combine impulse and reaction, so that it is difficult to separate them conceptually. The lawn sprinkler uses two jets at right angles to the radius in which the released pressure creates the reactive force. The flow of water in a lawn sprinkler is radially outward.
Water under pressure is introduced at the centre, and jets of water that can cover the area necessary issue from the ends of the arms at zero gauge pressure. The pressure decrease occurs in the sprinkler arms. Though the water is projected at an angle to the radius, the water from an operating sprinkler moves almost along a radius. If you have such a sprinkler, by all means observe it in action. The jets do not impinge on a runner; in fact, they are leaving the runner, so their momentum is not converted into force as in the impulse turbine. The force on the runner must act in reaction to the creation of the momentum instead, which is, of course, the origin of the name of the reaction turbine. Multiplying the number of jets would increase the power on the shaft but also the supplied pressure must also be increased.
Above is a picture of COANDA’S reaction engine built in the early 1900’s.
Implosion plate’s wavy design is a form of turbine rotor blades in which the pressure of the gas or fluid changes as it passes from one wave to the next. It is also fully immersed in the working fluid. And as written previously this fluid is also being heated and expanded at the same time. It is claimed that the overall efficiency of a reaction turbine is slightly higher than the equivalent impulse turbine for the same thermal energy conversion but this is very untrue. A reaction turbine design can be far superior in non combustion horsepower than combustion engines could ever obtain.
Pressure Jet Nozzles:
There is several types of pressure nozzles that can create a reaction due to the opposite force reaction. Flat nozzles with directed force were used in the implosion peripheral. By extending a flat nozzle 360 degrees around the peripheral the reactive force is multiplied many times probably in to the hundreds if compared to regular cone shaped force nozzles. According to the calculations I have determined that the regular cone shaped nozzle only produces 2 Newton’s of reactive force when pressured to 100 psi. When this is compared to a Coanda type nozzle the difference is 8 Newton’s of reactive force output for the same pressure input. Now this figure is based on a cold jet assumption but when heat is applied to the jet the reactive force starts becoming greater. Shaft horsepower multiplies considerably. So let’s say for comparison the cone shaped nozzles was giving me an output of 300 hp with 100 psi air pressure and the Coanda nozzles were to give me 1300 horsepower with the same psi then how much do I need to decrease the head pressure to bring me back to the 300 hp? If I decreased the shaft load 50 percent, how much head pressure would now be required to do the shaft work output? I know these answers already but printing them would create a firestorm of controversy. So you figure them out yourself.
Coanda so long ago built a similar reaction type of engine based around these same principals. Below is a typical Coanda nozzle built in the early 19th century.
For every increase in 350 degrees of heat the force doubles. So let’s say when the heat output in the wave plates reached this amount of heat output the force output at the peripheral flat nozzles would also double, and this makes the rotation velocity increase substantially. Big aircraft manufacturers here in the United States have known this for 50 years so I share this information from Boeing below.
Written By Boeing Aircraft in 1960 (Concerning this same nozzle design)
Ejecting high pressure engine efflux into a channel (called an augmentor) causes additional cooler ambient air to accelerate through the channel and mix with the engine exhaust. At the exit of the augmentor, the combined flow produces more thrust than the input engine efflux; the net increase is the amount of augmentation. In laboratory tests, thrust augmentation of 1.5 to 2 times engine thrust was achieved. This can also be applied to the flat nozzle system of the wave plate design.
Implosion motors don’t start themselves so just how did Victor start his motors?
There can be two distinct ways to start an implosion motor and that is thru the use of an electric motor connected to the shaft or inducing a pressurized air supply thru the wave plates and inducing the turn thru the slotted curvatures at the peripheral. You still have to create the compressed air so here is energy already spent which now becomes input energy to start the process, like the electric starter does on a combustion engine. Both would work very well but this is still energy input to start the process.
At some point though the air pressure input would reverse from a induced head pressure to a suction pressure once the waves reach their self heated value. You would find that the head pressure decreases because the volume of heat is expanding larger and less and less pressure is required. Finally the suction pressure alone is enough to sustain the spin of the turbine. If you were to recapture at least 50 percent of your exhausted and expanded volume and pressure and force this back into the head pressure then the wave plate turbine would begin to increase in horsepower by some multiplied value.
When we look back again into the laws of thermal dynamics as it was written elsewhere this material.
The second law states: There is no process that, operating in a cycle, produces no other effect than the subtraction of a positive amount of heat from a reservoir and the production of an equal amount of work. This means that energy systems have a tendency to increase their entropy rather than decrease it. It is known however that a microscopic system may exhibit fluctuations of entropy opposite to that dictated by the Second Law, and so, this law is only valid for macroscopic systems or long durations. Quoting Maxwell (who was also a thermodynamicist): 'The truth of the second law is a statistical, not a mathematical, truth, for it depends on the fact that the bodies we deal with consist of millions of molecules. Hence the second law of thermodynamics is continually being violated, and that to a considerable extent, in any sufficiently small group of molecules belonging to a real body.' (J. C. Maxwell, Tait's Thermodynamics II, Nature 17, 278-280 [7 February 1878]).
It is not usually stressed enough, the fact that there is a very fundamental assumption in these laws, even in the first most 'secure' law of thermodynamics, or what we usually refer to as COE (conservation of energy). They ASSUME a closed system, and are born out of pure mathematics or statistical work, unprovable in the real world. Unprovable because no one has yet been able to isolate a closed system. We are not even sure that the universe as a whole can be regarded as a closed system, which is a strict requirement for the conservation of energy law! In fact principles such as uncertainty, and entanglement, would seem to indicate that either it is impossible for a truly closed system to exist, or that our idea of a closed system is not taking into account other phenomena or energy exchanges which cannot be easily or possibly isolated from our systems. For example, one might consider a mechanical engine as a closed system, and finds out that it's impossible to get two similar efficiency readings. This could for example be due to changes in external ambient temperatures which were not taken into account in the first place. So, in such a case, our sun must be taken account as part of this example. But, still, we find that even at absolute zero kelvin, the ground state energy does not go to zero, and this means that other yet unknown energy sources must be taken account, or at least have their existence accepted by mainstream science, which is currently not the case. And that's why the list of anamolous effects in science is getting longer year after year.
Does the implosion motor fit the description of a perpetual motion machine? Lets look at what the definition of such a machine is.
The present definition of perpetual motion refers to a condition in which an object continues to move indefinitely without being driven by an external source of energy. In effect by its very definition, such motion requires a system which consumes and outputs at least 100% of its energy constantly.
Friction plays a big part in making sure PM cannot exist. Bearings and air friction alone decrease the velocity of any known moving part at least in the atmosphere of mother earth. But these frictions are only a certain value of loss when considered the fluid that is creating the velocity can be greater overcoming the frictions. Wave plates are mounted to a shaft that must use bearings and the plates themselves operate in a environment that creates thermal friction against the plates. Gravity also creates friction against any object. Space is a different argument left for another time concerning wave plate operation. If air is the motive of fuel, some outside force has to be exerted on the air to create a energy phase change to take place. Again the latent heat already existing in the air molecules is the fuel source. Even though you can’t see it, it is there. Air engines extract this heat thru the cylinder walls and this is why air engines are known to get icy cold. Pressure entering the piston is higher than the pressure exiting the same cylinder which is lower because of the heat extraction. So piston driven air engines are not efficient. On the other hand the implosion motor by sucking in atmospheric air at a given temperature is not extracting the heat energy but increasing the heat energy first by compression, expanding the fluids energy then releasing the energy all at once at the peripheral thru a reduced flat nozzle. The motor does not get cold but instead increases in heat as the rpm increases. Copper absorbs and reflects heat and this is why the wave plates are again made out of copper. So if heat creates horsepower and the system continues to produce heat then the horsepower must also increase. Implosion motors will double and triple and possibly quadruple in power output. In most all reaction type of engines, a head pressure with the gas or liquid fluid must be injected. So energy is being spent creating this pressure initially. If the supply at any time should exceed the demand, an increase in pressure would happen increasing the shaft output. The energy being spent does not equal the energy being released on the reaction output. In fact the energy being released is greater because of the compression heat and expansion taking place within the descending chamber system of this reaction turbine. If recovery of at least 50 percent of this heated and expanded energy release is recaptured and redirected toward the head pressure than that is considerably less energy that has to be spent to generate the pressure initially. This is a new type of regenerator not previously realized in the use of other engines.
LATENT AIR: Taken from “Test of Hardie Compressed Air motors” pg 65
But if we continue to increase the heat to 350 degrees in the descending chambers then the saturated air increase continues to climb upwards of 3 or better thus increasing the reaction thrust and the shaft horsepower output. For every 350 degrees this temperature can be increased, this force could also double again. So the energy output multiplies while the input energy decreases.
Remember: The latent heat of water is 142 thermal units but it expands to 967 thermal units when it becomes steam and becomes an even greater amount as it gets higher in value. Super heated steam can create over unity results.
Injecting moisture latent compressed air as a head pressure into the super heated descending chamber system like wave plates near let’s say 350 degrees f temperature would give a reactive thrust vector at the peripheral very high performance. Again re-capturing 50 percent of this energy release and redirecting it back into the head pressure decreases our energy input substantially.
In the early days of air engines it was proven that
passing the air thru a small tank of hot water before admission to the motor
cylinders doubles the useful effect and this would improve the economy 4 to 1.
But pre heating boiling water is an energy input to be transferred to the cold
air state to warm it. And this had to use an outside fuel source to complete
this cycle. Usually coal or would burning sources were used since these were
cheap. In our day and time now electricity is cheap and this comes from magnets
spun across copper coils. So creating heater cores that run off of self
contained electric fields and injecting this heat directly into the gas fluid is
100 percent efficient.
For every 100k watts supplied, 330 lbs of electrostatic thrust can be obtained thru the electric wing structure. This could power a sleek aircraft up to 200 mph.
Here is a 3d image of the Self compressed, super heated, air turbine. (Patent Pndg)
At this time prototyping is underway and a working model may be presented very soon. The RAT is not a combustion type of engine so it consumes no fuel. It does work off the principals of thermal expansion of latent air and thus generates it kinetic shaft output power. Lee Rogers built an air powered car and drove it from Florida to Ohio and back in 1978. It did not use any combustion based technology.
Bob Neal also filed a patent on the same technology. His air engine design had a self compressing aspect that proved the same thing could be done. Bill Truitt also built a racing car that used a self compressed air engine concept in 1955. It also was a successful design. Thirty eight patents have been filed on air engine technology in the 100 years spanning 1901-1999 in the U.S.A. But only four proved self compressing engines could generate their own air fuel pressure.
Picture of a 100k watt Axial Flux Generator Head as built.
The writings of Robert Bailey:
Over the last many years Robert Bailey, who has been one of the most intense researches of implosion energy has corresponded with me thru many emails. He has submitted to me over 800 pages of text and illustrations concerning the subject of implosion. Because of his work in this field he has also been harassed, and his house broken into several times and his equipment and experimental devices stolen. The question is who stole the work that he has dedicated so much of his life too? But that has not stopped him from continuing to plow ahead in such unknown territory. Robert Bailey has served as a mentor to me over the years and I have found his knowledge very extensive. He has searched under every rock and inspected every device for the differences in thermal temperatures that might create an implosive environment. So the following PDF files have been released to you to read and enjoy. You may get some understanding from the written material from the genius mind of this inventor. There is much to be learned from these writings.
As like Victor Schauberger he has spent a lifetime trying to come to an understanding of the motive force behind implosion energy. Much of this material has never been released to the public so you are seeing and reading it here for the first time. If you a truly intelligent individual you may begin to wrap your head around what has been released here and begin to follow some path of research in this direction. It is truly still an open field to be conquered. It does however hold more secrets to be discovered.
Robert Bailey got his fame after writing on the Jnaudin website in France on his work in building an experimental implosion motor engine.
That information can still be obtained.
Below are the released files for review.